Aldona Šileikaitė, Ilona Čėsnienė, Arūnas Germanavičius
Forensic psychiatry is specific area where legal, clinical and social aspects are involved. Moreover it is important to evaluate and protect both sides the public and persons who are not guilty by reason of insanity. The most prevalent mental disorders among forensic psychiatry patients are psychotic disorders (especially schizophrenia) and intellectual disabilities. Usually substance dependence is comorbid disorder and acts as strong violence provoking factor. Personality disorders and dysfunctional personality features are specific subgroup of patients, because they dysfunctions are linked to increased risk of violence. In the scientific literature most attention is paid to evaluate violent behaviour risk factors and to develop risk assessment tools. Various advanced neuroimaging techniques are used to explain violent behaviour mechanisms by neuroanatomical and neurobiochemical changes in the brain. In addition, disturbances of neurotransmitters, hormone levels, head trauma are associated with a higher risk of violence among patients in forensic psychiatry. Few scientific papers are focused on evaluation of protective factors, but there are no definitive state-of-the-art recommendations in forensic psychiatry practice. We conclude that further interdisciplinary research is needed among different populations of forensic psychiatric patients.
Keyword(s): forensic psychiatric patients; risk of offending behaviour; violent behaviour; risk factors; treatment; prevention.
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