Danutė Kalibatienė


In order to implement preventive measures, favourable population‘s disposition towards taking part in preventive programmes is essential. People‘s disposition towards health as well as behaviour towards the sake of health is influenced by sociocultural factors such as socioeconomical status, beliefs and  comprehensible personal risk to come down with some disease.
The aim of the paper was to analyze and assess male, who had taken part in the early detection programme of prostate cancer, health beliefs and their relationship with sociocultural factors.
Research material and methods. An early prostate cancer detection programme carried out in Vilnius Šeškinė outpatient clinic has been chosen for this investigation. 1184 men have been questioned. The respondent age was between 45 and 79, the average was the age of 59,2. The period of investigation comprised the year 2009–2010. V. Champion‘s list of questions, applied for preventive programmes of oncological diseases, was used for the quantitative  research of health beliefs. The research statistical data analysis was carried out using „Microsoft Excel for Windows 2003“ and „SPSS 17.0 for Windows“ programmes. Standard characteristics were calculated: a general number of observations (n), the mean (M), the standard errors of the mean (SP), mode, median, minimum (Min) and maximum (Max).. Standard procedure Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify the differences of continuous value (answer score values) between categorical variables (5 subgroups and from 5 to 15 questions in every group). The statistical significance of the difference was evaluated using Fisher criterion F, the difference is statistically significant when p<0,05. Student‘s test was applied to evaluate the statistical significance of the difference between two compared means. Radar graph was used for graphic scores presentation of five health belief features.
Research results and conclusions. Most of the men, who took part in the early prevention programme of prostate cancer, were married (89,7 %), with secondary school education (31,6 %) and belonged to the working class (33,4 %). While investigating male health beliefs have been evaluated according to five conceptions, such as perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and health motivation. It was identified that there were statistically significant differences in all health attitude fields between the answer score averages towards subgroup questions. Thus, in all subgroups the answers to questions varied considerably.
The investigation showed that health motivation was the most important stimulus to take part in the early prevention programme of prostate cancer (assessment mean is 2,54 out of 3 points) in comparison with the perceived severity (2,16 points; t=34,5, df=16574, p<0,0001), perceived susceptibility (1,81 point; t=67,0, df=14206, p<0,0001) and perceived barriers (1,97 point; t=58,7, df=22494, p<0,0001).
Most respondents believed that they were under the risk of geting sick with prostate cancer (assessment mean is 1,88 point). Having more possibilities to get sick with prostate cancer than other men, seemed to be the least plausible thing for the respondents (assessment mean is 1,76 point). Most respondents thought that their lifestyle would change to a great extent if they had prostate cancer (assessment mean is 2,37 point). The statements related to emotional field were assessed by a lower score (1,95-1,99 point on average).
The most important statements, reflecting the perceived benefits by the respondents, were an opinion that an early examination would help to diagnose prostate cancer earlier (assessment media is 2,83 points), also, having found about the positive examination results, they would worry less about prostate cancer (assessment mean is 2,77 points) and it would reduce the probability to die from prostate cancer (assessment mean is 2,65 points). The most frequent barriers that prevented from taking part in the early detection programme of prostate cancer was a respondent opinion that prostate biopsy and digital analysis would be painful and would embarrass them. Such barriers as price of the test and detained time were less important for the respondents.
Health motivation beliefs, such as a will to determine health problems early, to retain good health, information search about health improvement, an opinion that it is necessary to take up activities which strengthen health, regular health check-ups, sufficient physical activity, were the least expressed in the groups of retired and unemployed people, meanwhile they were the most expressed in an office worker‘s social group. Activities that strengthen health and preventive health check-up were the least important factors for the working class in comparison with other social groups.

Keyword(s): early detection of prostate cancer, health beliefs.
DOI: 10.5200/177
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