Alina Vilkė, Milda Juškė, Petras Petkevičius, Ilona Šuškevičienė, Diana Bilskienė, Andrius Macas
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in adults and a leading cause of death in childhood. So to determine level of TBI, patient’s outcomes and survival rate it is important to widen diagnostic possibilities with various biochemical markers (neuromarkers). A biomarker detectable in serum, and easily analysed, would be preferable as a complement to clinical assessment after TBI.There are several neuromarkers used in clinical practice already, such as S100B protein, GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein), NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase), MBP (Myelin Basic Protein). Other neuromarkers, such as BDMF (Brain-Derived Neutrophic Factor), NF (Neurofilament) protein, interleukin 1, interleukin 6 and Tau protein, are used in research actively, however their use in clinical practice is not popular yet.Neuromarkers are easy and fast diagnostic method. In addition, they are cheaper then visual methods (CT, MRI) to determine and analyse TBI, especially when there are plenty of industrial methods to determine the concentration of neuromarkers in blood serum. S100B and GFAP are diagnostic markers for astrocytes, NSE for neurons, MBP for axons. Interpretation of the results and their dynamics is the biggest problem. However, more and more clinical trials prove the specificity and sensitivity of neuromarkers assesing the TBI’s level and outcome.
Keyword(s): neuromarkers, biochemical markers, traumatic brain injury, brain damage, S100B proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron specific enolase protein, myelin basic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
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