Sergey Igumnov, Sergey Davidovsky, Robert Iskandarov, Olga Iskandarova
Several biological risk factors for suicidal and self-harming behaviour have now been identified. The differences relate to changes in key neurotransmitter systems (serotonergic, polyamine stress response, glutamatergic and GABAergic systems), inflammatory response, astroglial dysfunction, neuronal plasticity factor, confirming the need to differentiate between those motivated to commit suicide and those prone to non-suicidal self-harming behaviour from total suicide attempts.
Non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour (self-injurious thoughts and behaviours or non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)) is defined as repeated, deliberate, direct damage to the body without suicidal intent, which is not socially acceptable. An integrated theoretical model of NSSI development and support suggests that this type of behaviour functions as a method of regulating emotional experience and social interaction when a stressful event occurs. NSSI is currently included in Section 3 of the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) and is listed as a condition recommended for further study. The American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code NSSI as a symptom of borderline personality disorder.
Recent studies have shown that 59.6% of individuals with NSSI show signs of substance abuse.
There are concerns that rates of suicide and suicidal behaviour may increase during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keyword(s): Suicidal and self-harming behavior, suicidal ideation, the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision, borderline personality disorder, alcohol, psychoactive substances, COVID-19 pandemic.