Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a developmental disorder characterized by the absence of ganglia in the distal colon, resulting in a functional obstruction. Incidence of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is 1 in 500 000 and it accounts for 5-10% of all cases of HD. HD should be suspected in patients with typical clinical symptoms and a high index of suspicion is appropriate for infants with a predisposing condition such as Down Syndrome (DS), or for those with a family history of HD. The treatment of choice for HD is surgical, such as Swenson, Soave, and Duhamel procedures. The goals are to resect the affected segment of the colon, bring the normal ganglionic bowel down close to the anus, and preserve internal anal sphincter function. We present a clinical case report of TCA in a child with Down syndrome (DS) and review of literature.
Keyword(s): Hirschsprung disease, total colonic aganglionosis, Down syndrome.