Vaiva Cechanovičiūtė


The therapeutic use of botulinum toxin for facial reju­venation is the most popular aesthetic procedure. The prevalence of complications is approximately 16 percent and they are usually mild, transient, and self-limited. Of them, the most common is bruising, followed by ot­her less prevalent local adverse effects such as ptosis of the eyelid or eyebrow, facial asymmetry, diplopia and lagophthalmos, or local injection location pain as well as allergy which can manifest systemically. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the facial muscles and ot­her structures, correct technique, proper dosing of botu­linum toxin, and injection location marking being used are the fundamental ways to avoid such complications. Post-procedural management depends on the manifested complications.

Keyword(s): botulinum toxin, injection, rejuvenation, upper face, complications, prevention.

DOI: 10.35988/sm-hs.2024.127
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