Health Sciences, Volume 21, Number 2(74) (2011)

ANAPHYLAXIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, MANAGEMENT, PREVENTION

Dagmara Reingardienė

Abstract


Summary

Anaphylaxis, a term first used by Richet and Portier in 1902, is a serious and potentially lethal systemic reaction affecting two or more organs or systems. It is a allergic reaction. Hypotension and shock are not necessarily present. The term „anaphylactoid“ is no longer recommended for use. Trigger factors include foods, insect venoms, medications, natural rubber latex, occupational allergens, and nonimmunologic triggers include exercise, cold air or water, heat, radiation, ethanol etc.

Epinephrine (adrenaline) as an essential medication for the treatment of anaphylaxis. There is no absolute contraindication to epinephrine injection. In this review article we are discussed about the rate of occurrence, triggers of anaphylaxis, pathogenesis (immunologic mechanisms – IgE dependent, IgE independent, nonimmunologic mechanisms, idiopathic anaphylaxis), clinical features (cutaneous, respiratory, etc.), biphasic reactions, risk factors for severe anaphylaxis, laboratory tests at the time of the acute anaphylactic episode, confirmation of the triggers of anaphylaxis, differential diagnosis. This review present news about prompt life – saving first – aid treatment, other drugs in the management of anaphylaxis, fatality from this allergic reaction, and long – term risk reduction: preventive measures (avoidance of specific triggers, emergency preparedness (self – injectable epinephrine), immunomodulation: desensitization, immunotherapy, and other preventive means.


Keyword(s): Allergy, anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, allergic reaction, epinephrine, adrenaline.

DOI: 10.5200/31

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